Monday, May 25, 2020

Mtv Essay - 1033 Words

MARINA OREB 13000069 CRST1 ESSAY – OPTION 1 (MTV) MTV can be defined as â€Å"a cable and satellite television channel which broadcasts popular music and promotional music videos.† ( Launched on August 1st 1981, MTV’s programme started out by helping musicians gain exposure through music videos. This helped TV audiences connect with music by new means. As MTV became more recognised, the network branched out by creating new means of entertainment. MTV has remained relevant by continuously adapting throughout its existence to meet their audience’s entertainment requirements. (International MTV and Globalisation). Originally MTV concentrated on rock music and played classical artists such as the ‘Police’. The†¦show more content†¦MTV responded to the demands of their market which has helped them advance and be in the position they are in today. Today, MTV posts networks in over 30 languages in over 130 countries which points out its successfulness in catering for their audience. MTV has succeeded in becoming an undeniable influence, not only in their music but in popular culture as well. (MTV, 2013). Popular culture can be defined as â€Å"The knowledge of current or up-to-date events. It can refer to music, television, film, sports, and anything in the public domain.† ( MTV operates globally and one may argue that MTV shapes their audience tastes however in present times the public has vast options and therefore can easily dictate by choosing the channel that best suits their tastes and wants. MTV’s power to adapt to change has worked to their advantage as they have been able to capture their target audience throughout their existence. MTV was first to establish principles of popular culture. MTV became an iconic presence in popular culture, inspiring visual media culture. Over the years, MTV has played a major role on popular culture on a global scale. MTV has advanced in becoming a leading style of popular culture for younger generations. MTV and its culture has spread world-wide resulting in MTV’s expansion into different channels and countries such as MTV China, MTV Canada, MTV India, etc. however, all the channels belong to one mass media source: MTV.Show MoreRelated Effects of MTV Essay485 Words   |  2 Pages The negative effects of MTV on our society and culture What do you think about when you hear the word MTV? Carson Daily counting down the top ten on Total Request Live? Bam Margera doing insane stunts on his new show BAM? How about The Wild Boys chasing alligators and poisonous snakes? MTV has revolutionized and affected the whole world through its negative influence on society and culture. MTV has in many ways corrupted our youths and American culture with shows such as Jackass, with their dangerousRead More Gender Dichotomies on MTV Essay4969 Words   |  20 PagesGender Dichotomies on MTV TV is a worldwide phenomenon that has defined an entire generation. Six out of ten households receive MTV as part of their basic cable service, and adolescents spend, on average, two hours a day watching the network (Signorelli, McLeod, Healy 92). This is not only in America. Viacom, MTV’s parent company, claims to reach 320 million households in 90 countries on 5 continents for 24 hours a day (Mundy 240). Such a large spanning audience has many worried about theRead MoreMtv Case Study Essay1143 Words   |  5 PagesMTV: Building Brand Resonance 1 – What is the MTV brand image? How valuable are the MTV brand associations? What should its core values be? The MTV brand started out with a focus on the music where it helped to launch the visual impact of bands through music videos. MTV is a youth oriented brand, that started as a purely music video station, and has now involved into a pop-culture station with a mix of long-form programming, and videos. They created stars and termed new expressions like VJsRead MoreEssay Impact of MTV on Todays Youth970 Words   |  4 Pagesmost part, the one channel that is shared amongst this music generation is MTV. Music being the new global language talks to the teenagers worldwide. MTV, the source of the global language, have many versions ranging from the US to Asia. With this type of influence, MTV plays a major impact on the youth of today. To say this is bad, I cannot, because I also grew up in this generation watching MTV and VH1. The way in which MTV brings cultural values worldwide is fascinating. With MTV’s brand beingRead More MTV: Music Mainstream Essay2760 Words   |  12 PagesInvention of MTV MTV pioneered the music video, music television industry. The music video genre was taking its first steps in the 60s and 70s. MTV seized upon the idea, linked it with cable television and created a media icon. MTV has been the launching pad for the careers of stars for two decades. On the MTV model, other music television programs adopted the format such as BET, VH-1, and the Nashville Network. MTV has continuously pushed the envelope in music and social issues. TheirRead MoreEssay on Brand Mtv2409 Words   |  10 PagesG.D.GOENKA WORLD INSTITUTE LANCASTER UNIVERSITY | MTV: BUILDING BRAND RESONANCE | MARKETING COMMUNICATION BRAND MANAGEMENT | MODULE CODE: GMSI 585 | 11/19/2010 | | [AN INDIVIDUAL ASSIGNMENT ABOUT MTV’S BRAND EQUITY AND ITS BRAND IMAGE AND DIFFERENT STEPS TAKEN TO BUILD ITS BRAND RESONANCE] | Submitted By: Module Leader: gazal babel Mr. ABHIJITRead More How MTV Maintains Its Dominance Essay1935 Words   |  8 PagesHow MTV Maintains Its Dominance Music Television, a basic cable service known by its acronym MTV, remains the dominant music video outlet utilizing effective marketing and competitive business practices throughout its nineteen year history. The creation of the I Want My MTV marketing campaign and use of the campaign throughout the 1980s helped the cable outlet secure a substantial subscriber base. MTV dealt with competition from cable mogul Ted Turners Cable Music Channel by creatingRead MoreThe Effects of MTV on American Culture Essay3119 Words   |  13 Pages MTV, formally known as Music Television, is one of the most viewed networks on television today. Roughly thirty-three years old, it has changed the American culture drastically in more than just one way. Specifically targeting teens and young adults, the MTV network provides all of the most up to date gossip on celebrities, highlights the latest fashion trends, promotes versified lifestyles, and defines the music industry of our generation. However, this so-called â€Å"idolized network† has notRead MoreMtv Networks: Case Study Essay1378 Words   |  6 PagesObjectives and Strategies MTV began as a unique and entertaining concept. A non-stop music video channel, which â€Å"served as a new promotional tool for recording artists, a new advertising vehicle for manufacturers, [and] a unique program format for cable operators† (Benjack 280). For most of the 1980s MTV remained an outlet for performers to simply get their new music noticed and attract new fans with creative videos. One of the earliest and greatest cable success stories; MTV was established by WarnerRead MoreMtv Marketing Strategy Analysis Essay examples4836 Words   |  20 PagesOn September 29, 1981, MTV had been in operation for two months, with twenty advertisers and 30% of available commercial time. At this time, the company was owned and operated by the Warner Amex Satellite Entertainment Company.[1] â€Å"Youth will be served,† this statement illustrates the foundations on which MTV was established. The company had already been serving the youths of the nation with â€Å"Nickelodeon,† hence MTV was created to target the â€Å"bigger kids,† the ones with enough discretionary income

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Lesson 8 - Mind Over Matter - 1117 Words

Lesson 8 – Mind Over Matter If Rappaccini’s garden can be seen as the Garden of Eden, in what role does that place Rappaccini? This brilliant scientist biologically succeeded in creating a beautiful and virtuous daughter, and he succeeded through his experiments in making her deadly to get close to. If one views Rappaccini as a God, creating his own Eden with his own impure purposes, what does this mean? It is clear that Rappaccini is the least innocent of all of the characters in this short story. Was he trying to destroy social and scientific convention, or was he merely trying to see how far he could push himself and the envelope of acceptable scientific practice? â€Å"Rappaccini’s Daughter† is a great story that shows many great uses†¦show more content†¦The uses colorful descriptions are also to describe Beatrice, drawing a parallel between her and the garden. A marble fountain is located in the garden, and given its description, the fountain is a symbol of physical corruption and purity of the soul, very much like Beatrice. The constant mention of Dante at the beginning, the viewpoint of Giovanni from his balcony looking down as into a pit, the poisonous vapors presumably rising from all of it, all suggests the ledge overlooking the deepest Hell where Dante and Vergil discussed the different degrees of sin, beginning with lust and ending with malice and betrayal. At the bottom of this pit, at its center, is not Lucifer, or even Rappaccini, but a fountain. There is no indication that the water flowing from the fountain is polluted. Beatrice’s innocent spirit is very similar to the fountain: many passionate and holy things gush out of her heart, when the pure fountain has been opened from its depths and made seen in its transparency to the mental eye; remembrance that, had Giovanni known how to estimate them, it would have assured that all of the ugly mystery was only an earthly allusion. In Roman mythology, the god of seasons and of ripening plants and fruits wooed and won Pomona, a nymph. Before meeting Vertumnus, she had confined herself to her garden to tend the plants and fruits. The statue of Vertumnus can be perceived as a symbol of

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Gender And Gender Within The American Workforce - 1306 Words

Equality has always been a huge topic at the forefront of America for many years. Whether it is equality for races, religion, gender or sexual orientation, people just desire for life to be equal and fair. Although much has changed and is continuously changing, women still struggle to be seen as equivalent to men in the American workforce. Bound by a wage gap that is bias towards the female species, women have to battle different factors which lead to inequivalent compensation. There are wage gaps stimulating from gender within the American workforce due to caregiving duties; which plays a major role in effecting women’s compensation, along with experience and education being overlooked in comparison to males; a female’s counterpart, and some wage gap issues are just plain out a result of discrimination. Women are typically the caregivers of the family. â€Å"Females in all societies exhibit more nurturing behavior than males, both inside and outside the family. Throughout the world, women are the primary caretakers of the young, the sick, and the old. Marriage and children have different impacts on men and women. When women marry, and especially after they have children, they tend to reduce their work involvement, whereas men tend to increase theirs.† (Browne Shiferaw, 2013). This responsibility often times causes them to accept mediocre jobs and have to juggle a small amount of work with little to no benefits, then going home to take care of the family. The 2011 article,Show MoreRelatedGender Bias Within The Workplace1129 Words   |  5 PagesGender bias is a concept that is seen every day, where society has taken upon itself to place male and females in certain stereotypical categories. For instance, gender bias in the workforce is one of the most common areas where women and men are treated differently. Women are supposed to work in fields such as nursing, office work, and so on; while men work in the fields of construction, engineering, athletics, etc.. In addition, there is a clear difference in the pay amount and promotions thatRead MoreGender Roles : An Individual s Appearance915 Words   |  4 Pageslearned our genders and the roles that come with it through out our life. From the moment we learn to speak and walk and developed our learning skills, we acquire learning behaviors where our genders are expected to behaviors, traits and characteristics. Gender roles are learned and influenced from our family, friends, society and even the media. However, our gender plays a huge role in our everyday life. There are rules and standards that we learn through out our life. There are gender differencesRead MoreDiversity In Todays Organizations Essay example1136 Words   |  5 PagesWith todays workforce becoming increasingly diverse and organizations doing more to maximize the benefits of the differences in employees, organizations are relying on managers to get the people who get the job done. People have always been the central to organizations, but there strategic importance is growing in todays knowledge-based business world. An organizations success increasingly depends on the knowledge, skills, and abilities of its employees excluding there gender, age, ethnicityRead MoreNecessary Growth: An Exploration of the Blossoming Need for STEM Education 1631 Words   |  7 Pagesthe nation has fallen drastically behind other global powers concerning its STEM- literate workforce. This is a result of educational failures, particularly the failure of education opportunities to bridge th e gender gap. Improving the diversity and knowledge of the technological workforce is the only way to return America to a position of technological prowess. Creating an environment that disregards gender and other â€Å"traditional† points of discrimination will allow females to expand into these traditionallyRead MoreThe Conflict Theory Of Deviance In Society1525 Words   |  7 Pagesdeviant behavior. In American society today, the conflict theory presents social change as something continual. An example of this in modern times would be the attempting to reach gender equality, as seen in feminist movements. This movement attempts to distribute power equality among men and women whether socially or in the workforce, and eliminate discrimination. As a result, there has been a significant increase of women college graduates, women in the workforce or army, and other opportunitiesRead MoreGender Inequalities Of Workforce And Gender Inequality1594 Words   |  7 PagesKhoubeserian Mr. Parker Sociology 101 February 1 2017 Gender Inequalities in Workforce Over the years it has become evident that women face far more significant barriers in the workforce than men do. A clear representation of this barrier is established by the gender pay gap, which is the difference in monetary amount received between a woman s and a man s average weekly earnings. The economy, as a social institution, is affected by gender and sex inequality. The idea of inequality in the workplaceRead MoreThe Theory Of How Cultures Are Becoming More Similar Globally1565 Words   |  7 PagesFive principles associated with McDonaldization include efficiency, calculability, predictability, control through technology, and irrationality of rationality. These five principles guide not only restaurant chains, but are used throughout factory workforces. Ray Kroc established the grounds for standardized McDonaldization in 1954. At the age of 52 Kroc maintained a hamburger stand and believed he could replicate his productivity through franchises. This idea would only be possible through low pricedRead MoreEssay on Income Inequality and the Effect on Gender Diversity1080 Words   |  5 Pages Latinos, African-American. This is known as racial diversity. Within these races are both women and men. This is known as gender diversity. Diversity is a common goal that employers strive for. There are many types of diversity in the workplace such as racial diversity, age diversity, and diversity involving skills. This range of people, age and skill make the workplace a more interesting place as people work with different intentions. The most common intention to work within people is money. IfRead MoreA Historical Perspective: The Wage Gap1586 Words   |  7 PagesFor several decades, most American women occupied a supportive, home oriented role within society, outside of the workplace. However, as the mid-twentiet h century approached a gender role paradigm occurred. The sequence of the departure of men for war, the need to fill employment for a growing economy, a handful of critical legal cases, the Black Civil Rights movement seen and heard around the nation, all greatly influenced and demanded social change for human and women’s rights. This momentous periodRead More1.Ethnic Niche Are Creations Within Industries Or Occupations1362 Words   |  6 Pagesniche are creations within industries or occupations that affect the desirability and availability of jobs that leads to ethnic division (Race, Ethnicity, and the American Labor Market: What’s at Work?, p. 5). They are basically inclinations for certain types of workers. Ethnic niches can be good environments to have in the workforce if one’s personal ethnic or racial group is included. But, ethnic niches can bar certain groups from getting the jobs and limiting mobility within them. The job queue

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Sexual Essay Example For Students

Sexual Essay Over the years, many people have believed that the issue of sexualharassment should not be discussed in public. Sexual harassment was to bediscussed behind closed doors. In spite of this, the social and politicalsystems have changed instantaneously. This social problem has affected menand women throughout time, however, it seems that the women of our societymore closely look at this issue. This social topic has encouraged women toestablish organizations in order to help them discuss the issues more openlyand to demand equality including fairness and justice throughout theworkplace and in their social lives as well. In recent years, sexual harassment has been one of the most serious andwidespread problems found in the workplace. For this reason, the UniversalDeclaration of Human Rights proclaimed, by the United Nations in 1948, tohelp everyone in their fight for self-respect and dignity. Indeed sexualharassment is an issue that complicates employment decisions. People alsorecognize that it is an issue involving the creation of an antagonistic oroffensive work environment. In many instances, the issue of sexualharassment is not something minor that can be easily solved. The issue of sexual harassment pertains to everyones apprehension of anindividuals comportment due to our societal social norms. Sexualharassment, in most cases, involves a superiors behavior towards asubordinate. As mentioned before, most forms of sexual harassment occur inthe workplace. An employee can charge an employer with sexual harassment as aresult of the misconduct of managers, fellow employees, vendors, and evencustomers. Eventually, this can cause a hostile work environment. It is true, for the most part, that sexual harassment comes in manyforms in the workplace. There are two significant ways in which one canidentify sexual harassment. They are called the Quid Pro Quo and theHostile Environment Harassment. The essence of the Quid Pro Quo theory ofsexual harassment occurs when an employee is confronted with sexual demandsto keep her job or obtain a promotion. This is a true violation of the CivilRights Act of 1964, which is also referred to as the Title VII Act. Eventhough sexual harassment by its very nature is complicated to define, theEqual Employment Opportunity Commission provides a general description ofsexual advances. The several basic varieties of the Quid Pro Quo harassmentindicate the unwelcome sexual advances and requests for sexual favors. Italso consist of other verbal or physical conducts dealing with a sexualnature of constituting sexual harassment when the submission to such conductis made either explicitly or implicitly just because a term or a condition ofan individuals employment. Secondly, the individual is used as a basis foremployment decisions affecting such individual. Finally, the result of suchconduct has the purpose or effect of unreasonably interfering with anindividuals work performance or creating an intimidating, hostile, oroffensive working environment. (Aggarwal, 89-93)Another form of sexual harassment is a hostile work environment. Thehostile environment theory involves sexual advances between the supervisorand the employee. An employees work performance will be less effective dueto these so-called sexual advances. However, a victim can file a complaintagainst their harasser so that they do not continuously force them toparticipate. Consequently, they will be forced to hand in their resignation. This issue of power has nothing to do with sex. For this reason, both male and females can be the harasser. The harassers main purpose is toforce another to feel or act in a certain way. Sometimes, sexual harassmentcauses an individual from effectively performing his/her job. As a result,is undermines an individuals dignity. In our society, there are three essential factors that relate to theissue of sexual advances. These elements are a divergence of perceptions,the complexity of human behavior and the attitudes of a sexist. (Lindemann,46-48) It is often difficult to draw a line between what is acceptable andwhat is unacceptable in a working environment because of the existence ofthese ingredients. Sexual harassment is a form of discrimination, which canmanifest itself in terms of physical and psychological acts. Physically, therecipient may be the victim of pinching, grabbing, hugging, patting, leering,brushing against and forms of touching. Psychological harassment can occurthroug h the proposal of physical intimacy by requesting dates and sexualIn 1964, Title VII of the Civil Rights Act was established, by variousstate legislation, to prohibit sex discrimination in the working environment. .ude8091bac12639e221cb9d4c03a0d989 , .ude8091bac12639e221cb9d4c03a0d989 .postImageUrl , .ude8091bac12639e221cb9d4c03a0d989 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .ude8091bac12639e221cb9d4c03a0d989 , .ude8091bac12639e221cb9d4c03a0d989:hover , .ude8091bac12639e221cb9d4c03a0d989:visited , .ude8091bac12639e221cb9d4c03a0d989:active { border:0!important; } .ude8091bac12639e221cb9d4c03a0d989 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .ude8091bac12639e221cb9d4c03a0d989 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .ude8091bac12639e221cb9d4c03a0d989:active , .ude8091bac12639e221cb9d4c03a0d989:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .ude8091bac12639e221cb9d4c03a0d989 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .ude8091bac12639e221cb9d4c03a0d989 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .ude8091bac12639e221cb9d4c03a0d989 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .ude8091bac12639e221cb9d4c03a0d989 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .ude8091bac12639e221cb9d4c03a0d989:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .ude8091bac12639e221cb9d4c03a0d989 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .ude8091bac12639e221cb9d4c03a0d989 .ude8091bac12639e221cb9d4c03a0d989-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .ude8091bac12639e221cb9d4c03a0d989:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Forgiveness Phenomena EssayAfter a decade of the enactment of Title VII, the Supreme Court confrontedits first case, Barnes vs. Train,

Saturday, April 11, 2020

How does CSR affect competitive advantage Essay Example

How does CSR affect competitive advantage Essay Introduction For many decades, corporate social responsibility (CARS) has been viewed as a waste of resources money, labor, time, etc. which conflicts with the firms responsibility to make profits in order to compensate its shareholders (Friedman, 1970; Henderson, 2001 ; Jensen, 2002; Levity, 1 958; Summary Ninepin, 2004). On the contrary, especially during the last years, many supporters of CARS came up with the argument that CARS provides a company with a series of specific benefits that very often will outweigh the expenditures. Some are even of the opinion that CARS is necessary for equines, both from an economic and a social point of view (Brown Fraser, 2006; Trucker, 1984; Kettle Lee, 2005; Meltzer, 1983; Porter Kramer, 2006). Screech (201 1 ) concludes by writing that the following two related conflicts could be solved by proving that CARS and profit-maximizing interests can go hand in hand: On the one hand, the argument that CARS is Just a waste of resources would be invalidated and on the other hand, CARS expenses could be Justified to the shareholders as compatible with the firms obligations and, thus, legitimate and economically beneficial. Although great amount of literature is being published about the connection of CARS and the financial performance of firms, it still lacks empirical support and is therefore vulnerable to the criticism that this relation is not a grounded fact, but rather wishful thinking by Its proponents (Rollover, Schmidt Runes, 2003; Screech, 2011). Therefore, this article aims at throwing light on the link between CARS and firm performance by assessing how CARS might influence a firms competitive advantage. Specifically, as many companies realize how important it is to attract highly skilled employees as a main component of their competitive advantage (Prefer, 1994; Tech, 1998; Turban Greening, 1997), the focus will be on the link between CARS and human resources. This article will start with a review of previous studies and research in this area, followed by an in depth analysis of relevant and underlying theories that describe how CARS affects competitive advantage via a firms human resources. We will write a custom essay sample on How does CSR affect competitive advantage specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on How does CSR affect competitive advantage specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on How does CSR affect competitive advantage specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Ultimately, this article will give Implications for Important future research and the mall findings will be concluded. Previous Research and Studies Although CARS has emerged as an Inescapable priority for business leaders in every entry (Porter Kramer. 2006), there Is no general agreement about whether CARS does contribute to the financial performance of firms or not. A lot of research has been conducted in order to prove the positive relationship between corporate financial performance (COP) and corporate social performance (SSP). Wood (1991 : 693) defines SSP as a business organizations configuration of principles of social responsibility, processes of social responsiveness, and policies, programs, and observable outcomes as they relate to the firms societal relationships. However, the exults of these studies have been inconclusive at best (Donaldson, 1999; Jones Wicks, 1999; McMillan Siegel, 2001; Roman, Hybrid Eagle, 1999). Other studies tried to find conceptual explanations for the lack or the existence of a relationship between SSP and COP, but could not provide answers (McMillan Siegel, 2001 ; society and business need each other now more than ever before. Companies depend on a healthy society, including health care, education, and equal opportunity, but also good government and property rights. These requirements are essential for productive workforce and will furthermore create an expanding demand for business. Simultaneously, this healthy society is also in the need of successful firms. Apart from creating Jobs and wealth, they are the main innovators that improve the standards and quality of living (Porter Kramer, 2006). Hence, it should be in the interest of every firm to conduct CARS, regardless of the possible relationship between SSP and COP. Firms behaving in a socially responsible manner benefit through the subsequent reputation, another topic with a huge body of literature. The reputation f a firm that is built on its social consciousness will not Just temper criticism by the public in case of a crisis (Porter Kramer, 2006), but will also help building a positive relationship to stakeholders, such as investors, suppliers, bankers, and customers (Bombers Channel, 1990). Again, from a financial perspective, reputation plays an extremely important role. Not only will it facilitate access to capital through the emanating positive relationship to investors, but with respect to SSP, reputation also has a higher correlation with COP than any other variable even corporate environmental performance (Brown Perry, 1994; Rollicks et al. , 2003). The return from reputation is, thus, the key to reaping benefits from SSP (Roberts Dowling, 2002). One way of reaping benefits from corporate reputation is by attracting a high quality workforce (Greening Turban, 2000; Turban Greening, 1997). However, the attraction of good employees is not the only channel through which good reputation through CARS affects a firms human resources, possibly leading to a competitive advantage. Research suggests that it also increases the goodwill of current employees towards their employer, which in turn can improve the companys financial outcomes (Davis, 1973; McGuire, Sundered Schneider, 1988; Haddock Graves, 1997). Furthermore, firms can turn instruments such as sponsoring of sports or cultural events into a competitive advantage by improving the morale of their employees and boosting productivity (Porter Kramer, 2002). Supplementary, it has been proved that scandals in regards to CARS will negatively influence employee morale and, thus, the firms performance (Screech, 2011). During the last decades, undress and thousands of articles about CARS have been published, many of them with a strong focus on financial aspects such as the relationship of SSP and COP. Surprisingly few dealt with the influence of CARS on human resources. Greening Turban (2000: 276) analyzed and confirmed that Job applicants will attempt to interview with firms, and will have a higher probability of accepting a Job offer from firms with positive SSP reputation. However, their study is based on a survey of only 39 students and did not focus on what exactly attracts employees and how these causes can be used to create a competitive advantage. Furthermore, a lot has changed during the last years, not only the importance of but also the ways companies pursue CARS. Therefore, these will be the main aspects in the remainder of this article. Theory and Implications for Future Research This section will introduce the most important theories that are relevant for an analysis of the relationship between CARS and competitive advantage. As this article section will start with an explanation of the importance of a quality workforce. Afterwards, theories will be presented which focus on how CARS can influence prospective (via firms attractiveness) or current employees. Quality Employees as a Source of Competitive Advantage There is a reason why statements like our employees are our strength can be found on the homepages and on promoting materials of many companies nowadays. The attraction of superior human resources and retaining them in the firm can provide firms with a sustained competitive advantage (Load Wilson, 1994; Prefer, 1994; Wright, Ferris, Hillier Karol, 1995). Additionally, especially in fields with labor shortage, such as IT or engineering, the attraction of quality applicants is becoming more and more important for the success of companies Jackson Schuler, 1990; Freeman Gowning, 1990). Those organizations that are able to attract the greater applicant pool of top-quality applicants can better utilize their selection system which results in a potential competitive advantage (Load Wilson, 1994; Turban Greening, 1997). As research suggests that employee attraction to a large extent is based on perceptions of the corporate image, which in turn is influenced by the firms SSP (Bombers Channel, 1990), the explanation is given of why many firms promote e. G. Their environmental or philanthropic programs in brochures for prospective applicants (Poe Courier, 1995). They want to demonstrate how socially responsible they act. That this can be successful is confirmed by the finding of Bauer and Amman- Smith (1996) that firms with a stance towards the natural environment are seen as more attractive firms than those without such a stance. The reason why companies should focus more on their employees is that researchers agree that a quality workforce has become more important than other sources of competitive advantage (Greening Turban, 2000). Previously, the success of firms was often attributed to their access to financial markets, product and process technology, patents, the placement of learning curves and economies of scale, etc. However, scholars have noted that the importance of those sources of success has decreased over time, while the selection and management of high quality employees has become a critical factor to success (Prefer, 1994; Snell, Wounds Wright, 1996). Knowledge-Based Theory Similarly, another body of literature suggests that a firms ability to create, manage and transfer knowledge is the key to its success (Feline Westerly, 2007; Grant, 1996), which also points out the importance of a quality workforce as one key to a nominative advantage. Authors suggest that intelligence, motivation, vision, experience, creativity, analytical abilities and commitment are some of the characteristics of quality employees (Tech, 1998). A firms success in the future depends largely on how well it can capture value from those knowledge assets (Tech, 1998). Hence, in order to succeed, a firm must take advantage of its workforce and be able to manage its knowledge. Although high quality employees can be viewed as a necessary condition for success in a modern knowledge economy, it is not a sufficient one (Greening Turban, 2000). The firm has to be able to develop the knowledge and talent into skills and competencies which are valuable, rare, inimitable by competitors, and unsustainable in order to develop a competitive The role of human resources in developing a firms competitive advantage is consistent with the resource-based theory of the firm. This theory suggests that every organization is simply a collection of unique capabilities and resources providing the foundation for the strategy of the organization and being the primary source of its competitive advantage and profitability (Barney, 1991/ 2011; Grant, 1991; Meyer, 1991). It assumes that firms acquire and develop these unique resources and capabilities over time and emphasizes that resources may not be mobile across companies, or easily imitable by other companies (Grant, 1991). As mentioned above, apart from physical resources, also human resources, such as talented managers or high quality employees, are highly important resources for firms (Barney, 1991; Meyer, 1991) and in a global economy, the skills of an organizations workforce are increasingly critical to the development of sustained competitive advantages (Throw, 1992). Additionally, SSP can be viewed as an organizational resource. Investments in SSP may assist firms in developing new capabilities, resources and competencies that are manifested in a firms structure, culture, technology and human resources (Barney, 1991; Russo Bouts, 1997; Heartfelt, 1984). For instance, SSP can help management to develop better processes, scanning skills, or information systems which will better prepare an organization for turbulences, external changes, or crises (Russo Bouts, 1997). The channels through which a companies SSP can affect these resources, especially the human resources, will be subject of discussion later in this article. Signaling Theory Another theory that may be relevant for understanding how a firms SSP may influence human resources, especially the attraction of quality employees, is the signaling theory. There exists a classical information asymmetry between the applicants and the employer. The applicant does not really know how working conditions, corporate culture, etc. Look like in the companies he or she is applying for. Signaling theory suggests that, due to the incomplete information about the company, applicants interpret all the information they receive as signals about e. G. The working conditions in the organization (Greening Turban, 2000). Organizational attributes, for example, provide prospective employees with information about how it would be like to be part of this organization. For instance, a firms formal social programs or policies towards stakeholders or developing political and social issues may attract applicants by serving as signals of the firms goals and commitment. Likewise, the policy to provide day care facilities or to manage diversity has an influence on organizational attractiveness as an employer, because it signals willingness to attract women and minorities and to treat them in a fair manner Greening Turban, 2000; Williams Bauer, 1994). Potential employees might interpret a companys SSP as a signal about its organizational values and norms. These values and norms affect the applicants perceptions of the working conditions and therefore also the companys attractiveness as an employer. Additionally, according to the person-organization fit theory (Kristin, 1996), it is expected that the prospective Job applicants specific values will influence the extent to which a firms SSP influences that attraction (Greening Turban, 2000: 259). Social Identity Theory influences human resources as well. This theory emphasizes that people classify themselves into specific social categories on the basis of different factors, as for example the organization they work for, and that the fact of being a member in those social categories influences peoples individual self-concept (Dutton, Dickered Hairball, 1994; Turban Greening, 1997). Hence, the self-image of employees is influenced by the reputation and the image of the employer. As mentioned earlier, a firms reputation is affected to a large extent by its corporate social performance. Consequently, social identity theory suggests that employees working for a firm with strong SSP will experience positive outcomes, such as an enhanced self-concept, just by being employed in this socially responsible firm (Greening Turban, 2000). Furthermore, as potential employees might expect to experience this enhanced self- concept, the attractiveness of firms that put a strong focus on acting socially responsible is positively affected as well. Definition of Research Gaps After having presented theories that suggest that the right employees can lead to a sustained competitive advantage and that there is relationship between CARS activities of an organization and its human resources, this article will now focus on issues where more research is needed in order to fully understand these relationships. Generally, there exists an almost inexhaustible amount of literature that analyzes the relationship of a firms SSP and its COP. A far smaller body of literature focuses on the link between SSP and human resources. Most of these articles build up theories and make suggestions, but not that much empirical research has been conducted yet to actually prove these theories or to contradict them. Research suggests that potential applicants are very aware of a companys SSP and that companies with a good CARS rating have a competitive advantage, because hey attract a larger amount of applicants and applicants that are of high quality. However, these studies by Greening and Turban (2000) and Turban and Greening (1997) are based on a survey of 39 students or even Just 34, respectively. Also, it can be assumed that those students were aware of the purpose of the study and, thus, were biased in regards to their answers. A study on a large scale needs to be conducted in order to get valuable results. Additionally, it needs to be conducted in different geographical regions of the world, as CARS plays completely different roles in the various societies. While it, for instance, is of great importance in most Western European or the Nordic countries, this is not necessarily the case in many South American or Asian countries. Furthermore, the ways how organizations pursue CARS has changed or at least become broader during the last years. Partnerships of business firms with non-governmental organizations (Nags) had been unthinkable a few decades ago, but have become an important issue nowadays. Many firms grant their employees a certain amount of days off, so that they can engage in Nags they support. Microsoft, for example, allows its employees to take three days off for this repose every year (Thomson, 2012). How do those CARS activities affect the attractiveness of firms? Which CARS activities affect a firms attractiveness the most? Since scholars argue that a quality workforce is becoming an increasingly important source for competitive advantage, these questions need to be addressed by future research. However, CARS does not Just affect a firms human resources via the employers SSP as well. In the framework of Mitchell, Eagle and Wood (1997), employees are seen as a crucial component to success and as a scarce resource. Therefore, they have power, legitimacy and some urgency, and are thus salient takeovers of the firm. It is a logical consequence that they are affected as well, when a firm aims at multiple stakeholders by pursuing CARS. According to Screech (201 1), the idea is that employees will be much more satisfied, if they feel that the beneficiaries of SSP are they, rather than some other external recipients of charitable contributions. Employee satisfaction, in turn, will help retain the employees and reduce turnover (Labeling Freeman, 2000), or positively influence the organizations operational efficiency (Branch Rodriguez, 2006), which can be the source of a competitive advantage. Future research might analyze how and which SSP strategies affect employee satisfaction or investigate if there are moderators that influence this relationship. Conclusion This article suggests that CARS and a firms human resources are interlinked with each other in many different ways. The analysis indicates that a quality workforce is becoming a crucial factor for gaining a competitive advantage and that quality employees can be attracted by a firms SSP. Furthermore, SSP positively influences the employee satisfaction which in turn might lead to a competitive advantage by boosting productivity and efficiency. However, this article aims at showing up areas in which more research has to be conducted in order to fully grasp the influence of corporate social responsibility on the human resources of firms. Especially, empirical research is needed to confirm the theories that have been proposed until now. But also in regards to the constantly changing ways of how companies pursue CARS, it is important to investigate which of them have the greatest impact on employees and their morale. Only then will it be possible for firms to capture the largest benefit of their CARS activities: the creation of a sustained competitive advantage.

Tuesday, March 10, 2020

Slavery in the territories essays

Slavery in the territories essays It has been said that the institution of slavery caused The Civil War. In the years leading up to Americas bloodiest war, the new territories the United States acquired began to get enough citizens so that they may become states. The question that ripped Congress and this country apart was whether or not these new states would be admitted as free or slave states. You see, until these states appeared there was a fragile balance of fourteen slave states and fourteen free ones. Admitting a state either way would cause a shift in power in the Senate, and who ever won could basically run the country. The first position to be discussed is that of the South. The South obviously believed that it was their right to take slaves into the new territories. As John C. Calhoun said it, there could be no compromise on the territorial issue. (67). The South felt that not being able to bring slaves into the colonies deprived them of their equality with the other states, the North in particular. They felt that the North was trying to dominate them, almost making the Southern whites slaves, The North is determined to convert all the southern population into slaves...The North and South are now completely separated. (70). The South felt that there was nothing wrong with the institution of slavery. It was their way of life and the means by which they made their living. Jefferson Davis said it best to exemplify the Souths feelings. To the abolitionists he said, They called slavery a sin. By which standard did they measure it? Not by the Constitution, which recognized property in slaves. Not by the Bible; that justifies it. (219). As is seen by that quote, the South felt justified in their use of slaves. They saw it protected by the Constitution, a document written by possibly the most respected men in American history, and a document held nearly in the same ligh ...

Saturday, February 22, 2020

Leadership of Turkish Founder Mustafa Kemal Atatrk Assignment

Leadership of Turkish Founder Mustafa Kemal Atatrk - Assignment Example Turkey could have been a colony of the British or the French had it not been with the bold and daring leadership of Ataturk. When Germany lost to the allied forces of which the old Turkey allied itself with, allied forces occupied the whole of the country of which it nearly made a colony and its caliphs already considering on whose side it would make itself a colony. But Ataturk wanted independence in Turkey and left Istanbul on small boat Bandirma to Samsun on May 19, 1919, and begun the Turkish War of Independence. From then on, Ataturk became a charismatic leader of Turkey wading off invading allied forces against all odds. Finally, Ataturk became victorious ending the War of Independence with the signing of the Treaty of Lausanne on July 24, 1923, where Turkey was recognized as an independent state. Ataturk became its President on October 30, 1923, until his death on November 10, 1938, and immediately instituted sweeping reforms on all aspect of Turkish life from the political, social, legal, economic, and cultural spheres and laid down the foundation of a modern Turkey which is based on democracy and sovereignty. In assessing the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, it is important that we have to contextualize his leadership to allow us to make an accurate analysis of his leadership. To put it in perspective, we have to consider that at the time when Ataturk led, Turkey was in a national crisis and was about to be colonized by allied forces.